In 1905 Einstein introduced Special Relativity in a paper titled 'Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper'.
It took me some time to fully understand the chapter about relativity of simultaneity (Kinematical Part, §1 and &2). I found the phrasing and wording not that easy to follow. Click here to read more.
1/ Click here for Einstein's original 1905 paper (in german).- 'Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper'-.
2/ Click here for the english translation -'On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies'-.
(I have some remarks on the english translation. Read more here.)
3/ Click here for a dutch translation - 'Over de elektrodynamica van lichamen in beweging'-. (Starts at page 27).
Same remark for the translation: "The trein toont (vertoont) korter' is acceptable, but not: 'The trein lijkt korter'. Terrible.
4/ I could not find a french translation on the internet.
In 1916 Einstein wrote a book for the general public.
Relativity: The Special and General Relativity. Albert Einstein. 1916.
Clck here for Wikibooks: Special Relativity.
Click here for Introduction to Special Relativity.
Click here for The Fundamentals of the Theory of Relativity / Dr. Peter J. Nolan.
I like this paper because it also treats the Loedel diagram. I love Loedel diagrams. Click on the red titles in the document to have acces to the full text. (Short summary of Loedel diagrams click here.)
Click here to learn more about Minkowski diagrams.
Click here for Minkowski diagram on Wikipedia.
Click here for an interesting interactive Minkowski diagram.
I learned about the Loedel diagram in Sartori's book 'Undertanding Relativity'.
Physicist Vesselin Petkov is a good advocate of 4D Spacetime (also called 'Block Universe'). Some of his very interesting papers are:
- Relativity and the Dimensionality of the World
- On the Reality of Minkowski Space.
- The Illusions of Reality.
- Is there an alternative to the block universe view?
- Lessons from failures to achieve what was possible in the twentieth century physics.
- Simultaneity, Conventionality and Existence.
- Relativity and the Nature of Spacetime.
- Minkowski Spacetime: A hundred years Later.
- Vesselin Petkov.
- Institute for Foundational Studies Hermann Minkowski.
An interesting article by physicist Paul Davies: - 'That Mysterious Flow.' (The yellow marks are mine.)
More interesting papers about BLock Universe:
- Relativity of Simultaneity and Eternalism: In Defense of the Block Universe.
- Block time: Why many physicists still don’t accept it?
Physicist Briane Green's book 'The Fabric of the Cosmos' contains a good shapter on Block Universe: Chapter 5 'The Frozen River.' Does time flow?' I could not find the text of that chapter on the internet, but in the 'Spacetime video' section on my site you find Briane Greene talking about 4D Spacetime (part of a four-hour TV series based on the book).
A few interesting critical papers by M. Janssen (Associate Professor, Program in the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine & School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota.):
- Presentism and Relativity.
- Reconsidering a Scientific Revolution: The Case of Einstein versus Lorentz.
- Drawing the line between Kinematics and Dynamics.
- Emergence and Interpretation of Lorentz Invariance.
- Comparing Lorentz's understanding of Lorentz invariance to Einstein's.
- Why did Einstein's programme supersedes Lorentz's?
Some thoughts on Block Universe and QM (Quantum Mechanics):
- Lessons from the Block Universe.
- An Argument for 4D Blockworld from a Geometric Interpretation of Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics.
I was once critisized for not having a bibliography -people never take you seriously if you never read a book-, so here you have it.
=> Go to ....
- Relativity for Dummies
- 4D Spacetime Block Universe
- Reciprocal time dilation
- Reciprocal length contraction
- Lengths do not 'appear' contracted!
- Measuring the contracted train
- Constant light speed
- Where is the bullet?
- Train experiment
- Slower and shorter - case study
- Minkowski vs Loedel
- Spacetime video
- Further reading